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The city has a rich culture and history, being known for its numerous art galleries, restaurants, churches, palaces, opera houses, piazzas, parks, gardens, theatres, libraries, museums and other venues.Turin is well known for its Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, Neo-classical, and Art Nouveau architecture.Both Livy mention the Taurini's country as including one of the passes of the Alps, which points to a wider use of the name in earlier times.In the 1st century BC (probably 28 BC), the Romans created a military camp (Castra Taurinorum), later dedicated to Augustus (Augusta Taurinorum).At the end of the 13th century, when it was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy, the city already had 20,000 inhabitants.Many of the gardens and palaces were built in the 15th century when the city was redesigned.The city thus became the seat of the prefecture of Pô department until the fall of Napoleon in 1814, when the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia was restored with Turin as its capital.In the following decades, the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia led the struggle towards the unification of Italy.



After the marriage of Adelaide of Susa with Humbert Biancamano's son Otto, the family of the Counts of Savoy gained control.The city is located mainly on the western bank of the Po River, in front of Susa Valley, and is surrounded by the western Alpine arch and Superga Hill.The population of the city proper is 886,837 (31 December 2016) while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants.Turin reached about 5,000 inhabitants at the time, all living inside the high city walls.

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the town was conquered by the Heruli and the Ostrogoths, recaptured by the Romans, but then conquered again by the Lombards and then the Franks of Charlemagne (773).

The Porta Palatina, on the north side of the current city centre, is still preserved in a park near the Cathedral.